In Breaking It Down, I talked about some of the take-down .22 rifles that are available on the new and used market.
But there have been a lot of factory take-down centerfire rifles over the years. This article in Outdoor Life has a good summary. A lot of take-down hunting rifles have been offered to consumers.
Marlin had the Model 1893. Winchester had the Models 1885, 1886, 1892, 1894, 55, and 94, and offered take-down Model 70s through U.S. Repeating Arms custom shop. Savage had a take-down Model 99. Browning offered the BLR. The Japanese even made a take-down version of their Arisaka 99 for paratroopers. And you can get modern take-down hunting rifles from Sauer, Blaser, and Dakota Arms.
In addition, there are plenty of custom shops that will convert a standard hunting rifle into a take-down version.
When it comes to non-hunting take-down rifles, the AR-15 platform is the most obvious example. While not expressly marketed as a take-down rifle, all you have to do is pop both of the pins and voila! The space savings of a broken down AR-15 is mainly in length. The height of the grip and the carry-handle/front sight (for non-flattops) make a disassembled AR-15 kind of bulky.